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ICRP词汇表简介

创建时间:2024-01-06 09:25

ICRP词汇表收集了ICRP对当前使用的术语的明确解释。一些条目包括历史描述,以帮助读者在特定上下文中更好地理解该术语。

 

ICRP词汇表是一份动态文件,会定期更新。

 

许多ICRP出版物都有自己的词汇表,例如,包括与该特定出版物相关的高度专业化的术语,或有助于读者掌握的术语,或引入将要添加到ICRP词汇表的新术语时。

 

ICRP词汇表不是一本词典,《牛津英语词典》中已经涵盖的解释不在此列。只有需要进一步解释以理解的那些专门术语才在此处列出。

 

 

0-9

4DCT (see Time-resolved computed tomography)

 

A

Absolute risk

Absorbed dose, D

Absorbed fraction

Absorption

Accelerated fractionation

Acceptance test

Access control

Accountability

Accreditation

Action Level

Activation

Active detection system

Active (red) bone marrow

Activity

Activity median thermodynamic diameter

Acute exposure

Acute radiation sickness (see Acute radiation syndrome)

Acute radiation syndrome

Additional dose

Adaptive response

Additive risk projection model

Adenoma

Adventitious

Adventitious source

Aerodynamic diameter

Air-kerma rate constant

Air kerma at the patient entrance reference point

Air-kerma, entrance surface

Air-kerma, incident

Air-kerma, product

ALARA

ALI (see Annual limit on intake)

Alimentary tract

Alimentary tract transfer factor

Allometry

Alpha decay

Alveolar-interstitial region

AMAD (see Activity median aerodynamic diameter)

Ambient dose equivalent, H*(10)

AML/eto

Angiogenesis

Annihilation photons

Annual dose

Annual intake

Annual limit on intake

Apoptosis

Area monitoring

ARS (see Acute radiation syndrome)

Attributable risk

Auger transition

Authorised discharge

Authorization

Authorized limit

Autoimmune disease

Automatic exposure control

Autonomy

Averted dose

 

B

Background dose (rate)

Backscatter detection system

Backscatter factor

Basal cell

Baseline disease rates

BAT (see Best available techniques)

Bcr/abl (see Breakpoint cluster region/abelson)

Beneficence

Benthic

Best available techniques

Beta-minus decay

Beta-plus decay

Bioassay

Biological half-life

Biomarker

Biomedical research volunteer

Bioturbation

Bone marrow

Bradycardia

Brachytherapy

Branching fraction

Bragg peak

Breakpoint cluster region/abelson

Broad beam therapy irradiation technique

Bronchial region

Bronchiolar region

Bystander effect

 

C

CACA (see Cobblestone area forming cell assay)

CAFC (see Cobblestone area forming cell assay)

CBCT (see Cone beam computed tomography)

Cardiac arrhythmias

Cardiac valve diseases

Cardiomyopathy

Cardioverter-defibrillator

Carers and comforters

Case–control study

Cell death

Charged-particle equilibrium

Chronic exposure

Class SR-0 gases

Class SR-1 gases

Class SR-2 gases

Clearance

Clearance level

Clinical audit

Clonogenic cells

Clonogenic survival

Clonogenic surviving fraction

Cobblestone area cell assay (see Cobblestone area forming cell assay)

Cobblestone area forming cell assay

Collective dose

Co-expertise

Cohort study

Collective dose

Collective effective dose

Collimation

Colony

Commissioning

Committed effective dose

Committed equivalent dose

Compartment

Compartment (environmental)

Complex tissues

Computed tomography dose index

Concentration ratio

Cone beam computed tomography

Connective tissue

Consequential late effects

Constancy test

Containment

Contamination

Coronary heart disease

Cosmic radiation

Cost-benefit analysis

Coster-Kronig transition

CR (see Concentration ratio)

Cross section

Cumulative air kerma (see Air kerma at the patient entrance reference point)

Cumulative dose

Curie

Cytokines

 

D

DAC (see Derived air concentration)

DBT (see Digital breast tomosynthesis)

DCRL (see Derived consideration reference level)

DD (see Doubling dose)

DDI, detector dose indicator (see Exposure index)

DIL (see Derived investigation level)

DDREF (see Dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor)

Decay constant

Decommissioning

Decontamination

Decontamination factor

Dental and maxillofacial imaging

Deontological Ethics

Deposition (inhalation)

Derived air concentration

Derived consideration reference level

Derived investigation level

Derived limit

Derived reference level

Designated area

Detector dose indicator (see Exposure index)

Detector quantum efficiency

Deterministic effect

Detriment

Detriment-adjusted risk

Diagnostic reference level

Diastasis

Dicentric chromosome

Dichotomous

Differentiation

Digital breast tomosynthesis

Dignity

Direct bioassay

Directional dose equivalent H’(d,Ω)

Disposal

Disposal facility

Distribution coefficient (Kd)

DLP (see Dose-length product)

DNA damage signalling

Dose (of ionising radiation)

Dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor

Dose coefficient

Dose commitment

Dose constraint

Dose conversion coefficient

Dose conversion convention

Dose conversion factor

Dose criteria

Dose equivalent in an organ or tissue

Dose limit

Dose modifying factor

Dose of record (E)

Dose of record Hp (10)

Dose per content function

Dose per unit intake coefficient

Dose rate

Dose rate effectiveness factor

Dose-length product

Dose-threshold hypothesis

Dose-rate effect

Dose-response function

Dose-threshold

Doubling dose

DQE (see Detector quantum efficiency)

DRL (see Diagnostic reference level)

DRL process

DRL quantity

DRL value

DS02

DS86

 

E

EAR (see Excess absolute risk)

Early normal tissue responses

Edema

Effect Dose 50

Effect modifier

Effective charge number

Effective dose, E

Effective dose equivalent

Effective half-life

EI (see Exposure index)

Electron-capture decay

Electrophysiology

Elemental dose

ELR (i.e. Excess Lifetime Risk, see Lifetime risk estimates)

Emergency

Emergency exposure situation

Emergency plan

Emergency preparedness

Emergency procedures

Employer

Endogeneous excretion

Endosteal tissue (see Endosteum)

Endosteum

Environmental exposure

Environmental radiation protection

Epigenetic effects

Epithelium

Equieffective dose

Equilibrium equivalent concentration

Equilibrium factor

Equity

Equivalent dose

ERR (see Excess relative risk)

Erythropoietin

Ethics

Evacuation

Excess absolute risk

Excess lifetime risk (see Lifetime risk estimates)

Excess relative risk

Excretion rate (instantaneous)

Exclusion

Exempt waste

Exemption level

Existing exposure situation

Exogenous excretion

Expanded and aligned radiation field

Expanded radiation field

Exponential survival curve

Exposed individuals

Exposure, external or internal

Exposure (in the context of inhalation)

Exposure index

Exposure pathway

Exposure situation

Extrathoracic airways

 

F

Fairness

Field-size effect (Volume effect)

Flexible tissues

Fluence, Φ

Fluoroscopically guided interventions

Fluoroscopically or computed tomography guided interventions

Forbiddenness

Fractional absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, f1

Fractionation

Fractionation and dose delivery patterns

Fractionation sensitivity

Frequent flyer

FSU (see Functional subunits)

Functional subunits

 

G

Galactic cosmic radiation

Gamma ray

Gastrointestinal syndrome

Gastrulation

Gastroschisis

GATA binding protein 2

GATA-2 (see GATA binding protein 2)

Genomic integrity

Geomagnetic cut-off rigidity (see Rigidity threshold)

Graded approach

Graft vs host disease

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

Gray (Gy)

Ground-level enhancement

Growth factor

Growth fraction

Growth hormone (somatotropin)

 

H

Habitual mouth breather

Habitual nose breather

Half-life, physical

HATM (see Human Alimentary Tract Model)

Hazard

Health Surveillance

Heliosphere

Hereditary effect

Hierarchical tissues

High level waste

High linear energy transfer radiation

Homologous recombination

Hormones

Hounsfield unit

HRTM (see Human Respiratory Tract Model)

Human Alimentary Tract Model

Human Respiratory Tract Model

Hyperbaric oxygen

Hyperfractionation

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Hypoplasia

 

I

ICRU 4-element tissue

ICRU sphere

Immune system

IMRT (see Intensity-modulated radiotherapy)

In vivo radiobioassay

Incidence

Incidence rate (see Incidence)

Incident

Inclusiveness

Individual decontamination

Individual monitoring

Individual-related

Induced genomic instability

Informed consent

Inhalability

Inner bremsstrahlung

Institutional control

Intervention

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy

Intake

Intermediate level waste

Internal conversion electron

Interphase death

Intervention Level

Interventional procedure

Investigation level

Iso-effect plots

Isomers

Isotropic geometry

Itinerant (radiation) worker

 

J

Justice

Justification

 

K

Kerma, K

Kerma approximation

Kp index

 

L

Lag

Late normal tissue responses

Latent time/period or latency interval

LD50/30

LET (see Linear energy transfer)

Licensee

Life Span Study

Lifetime risk

Lifetime risk estimates

Limitation of dose

Lineal energy

Linear dose response

Linear energy transfer

Linear-non-threshold model

Linear-quadratic dose response model

LLE (see Lifetime risk estimates)

Local DRL

Loss of Life Expectancy (see Lifetime risk estimates)

Low Earth orbit

Low dose

Low dose rate

Low level waste

Low linear energy transfer radiation

LSS (see Life Span Study)

Lymphatic system

 

M

Macrophage colony stimulating factor

Magnetosphere

Marrow cellularity

Mass median diameter

MDCT (see Multi-detector computed tomography)

Mean glandular dose

Measured quantity

Medical exposure

Member of the public

Mendelian diseases

Mitigation

MMD (see Mass median diameter)

Molecular imaging

Multifactorial diseases

Multiplicative risk projection model

Multistage carcinogenesis model

Multistage tumorigenesis

Multitarget equation

Multi-detector computed tomography

Mutation component

Myocardial perfusion

Myocardial stress test

 

N

National radon survey

National DRL

Naturally occurring radioactive material

Necrosis

Neurological syndrome

Neurovascular syndrome

NHEJ (see Non-homologous end joining)

Noise (in imaging)

Nominal value

Nominal risk coefficient

Non-homologous end joining

Non-maleficence

Non-sphericity parameter

Non-targeted effects

Normal tissue complication probability

Notification value (in CT)

Nuclear medicine

Nuclear track detectors

 

O

OAR (see Organ at risk)

Occupancy factor

Occupational exposure

OEA (see Oxygen enhancement ratio)

OLINDA/EXM

Oncogene

Operating management

Operational quantity

Optimisation

Optimisation of protection

Organ absorbed dose (see Organ/tissue absorbed dose)

Organ at risk

Organ dose equivalent

Organ/tissue absorbed dose

Other (systemic) tissues

Orphan source

Oversight

Oxygen enhancement ratio

 

P

Particle fluence (see Fluence)

Particle transport (in biokinetics)

Particle radiance

Patient entrance reference point

Peak skin dose

Pelagic

Pencil beam

Percutaneous coronary intervention

Pericarditis

Personal dose equivalent, Hp(d)

Phantom

Pharynx

Pilomatricoma

Planned exposure situation

Platelet-derived growth factor

PLDR (see Potentially lethal damage repair)

Pooled analysis

Population risk

Potential alpha energy concentration

Potential exposure

Potential recoverability correction factor

Potentially lethal damage repair

Practical radiological protection culture

Practice

PRCF (see Potential recoverability correction factor)

Prevailing circumstances

Principle of application of dose limits

Principle of justification

Principle of optimisation

Principles of protection

Procedural values

Progenitor cell

Programmed cell death

Projected dose

Protection quantities

Protection strategy

Protective action

Protective action guide

Prudence

Public exposure

 

Q

Qualified expert

Quality control testing (x-ray equipment)

Quality factor, Q(L)

Quasi-threshold dose

 

R

Radiation belt

Radiation detriment (see Detriment)

Radiation modifier

Radiation risk

Radiation safety officer

Radiation source

Radiation weighting factor, wR

Radiation-induced second cancer

Radiation-induced secondary malignancy

Radiation worker

Radioactive dispersion device

Radioactive source

Radioactive substance

Radioactive waste

Radioactivity

Radiofrequency ablation

Radiographer

Radiological attack

Radiological controlled area

Radiological protection principles

Radionuclides of natural origin

Radioresponsiveness

Radiosensitiser

Radiosensitivity, cellular

Radon progeny

Radon-prone area

RAP (see Reference Animal and Plant)

Ras

Rb

RBE (see Relative biological effectiveness)

Reactive oxygen species

Reasonableness

Recovery

Recovery responder

Recovery (cellular or tissue)

Redox

Reference air kerma

Reference Animal and Plant

Reference bioassay function

Reference biokinetic model

Referrer

Reference female (see Reference Person)

Reference individual

Reference level

Reference male (see Reference Person)

Reference parameter value

Reference Person

Reference phantom

Reference value

Reference worker

Region

Regional diagnostic reference levels

Registry

REID (see Lifetime risk estimates)

Rigidity threshold

Rehabilitation of living conditions

Relative biological effectiveness

Relative life lost

Relative risk

Relative survival

Relocation

Remedial action

Remediation

Repopulation

Representative organism (non-human biota)

Representative person

Reproductive integrity

Residual dose

Respiratory protection

Response function (see Dose-response function)

Retrievability

Reversibility

Right to know

Rigidity threshold

Rigidity

Ring chromosome

Risk

Risk coefficient

Risk model

RISM (see Radiation-induced secondary malignancy)

Risk of exposure-induced death (see (see Lifetime risk estimates)

ROS (see Reactive oxygen species)

Routine monitoring

RR (see Relative risk)

 

S

S coefficient (radiation weighted)

SAF (see Specific absorbed fraction)

Safety case

Safety

Safety culture

Scintigraphy

Sealed source

Secondary radiation

Secretory cells

Security

Security screening

SEE (see Specific effective energy]

Self-help protection

Senescence

Severe deterministic injury

Sheltering

Shielding

Sievert (Sv)

Size-specific dose estimate

SLDR (see Sublethal damage repair)

Slice (in CT & CBCT)

Slow repair

SOBP (see Spread-out Bragg peak)

Solar cosmic radiation

Solar cycle

Solar flare

Solar particle event

Solar wind

Somatic effect

Source (see Radiation source)

Source region

Source term

Source-related

Source-related assessment

South Atlantic anomaly

Special (non-routine) monitoring

Specific absorbed fraction

Specific effective energy

Spongiosa

Spontaneous fission

Spread-out Bragg peak

Stakeholder

Standard-size adult

Stem cell

Stenosis

Stochastic effect

Storage

Subcutaneous tissue

Sublethal damage repair

Substantial radiation dose level

Superposition principle (in dosimetry)

Supervised area

Surface contamination

Systemic model

 

T

Tachycardia

Target region

Target tissue

Targeted effects

Telangiectasia

Teratocarcinoma

Thermodynamic diameter

Thoracic airways

Threshold dose for tissue reactions

Threshold level

Tissue absorbed dose (see Organ/tissue absorbed dose)

Thoron progeny

Thyroid blocking

Time factor

Time-resolved computed tomography

Tissue equivalent material

Tissue reaction

Tissue weighting factor

Tolerability

Tolerance dose (in Radiotherapy)

Track structure

Transfer compartment

Transfer of risk

Transfer rate

Transforming growth factor

Transgenerational effect

Translocation

Transmission detection system

Transparency

Transport of risk (see Transfer of risk)

Tumour suppressor gene

Trapped particles

Treatment preparation in radiotherapy

Trophic level

Types of materials

Typical value (for DRL)

 

U

Unattached fraction

Unsealed source

Upper reference levels

Uptake

Utilitarian ethics

 

V

Value judgement

Valvular heart disease

Virtue ethics

Voxel phantom

 

W

Waste disposal

Waste management

Wisdom

WL (see Working level)

WLM (see Working level month)

Worker

Working level

Working level month

wT (see Tissue weighting factor)

wR (see Radiation weighting factor)

 

X

X ray

Xerostomia

 

Y

 

Z

...

α/β value

α/β ratio (see α/β value)

γH2AX foci

 

 

摘译自ICRP网站

 

每条术语的详细解释需通过联通ICRP网站方能阅读。——译者注